In April 2007, GEODynamics introduced a new class of Reactive™ perforating shaped charge that delivers a stepchange improvement in perforation tunnel geometry and performance. The CONNEX™ perforating product generates a secondary reaction in the perforation tunnel thanks to proprietary liner metallurgy and charge design. CONNEX™ perforating technology was developed under license fromQinetiQ with the vision and support of Shell.



CONNEX™ Perforating delivers debris-free tunnels with no crushed zone, even in lowquality rock and with no need for significant underbalance during perforating. Depth of penetration and casing entry hole diameter are comparable to leading conventional deeppenetrating  charges. Because the external profiles of CONNEX™ charges are identical to conventional products, they can be deployed in existing hardware, following standard operating procedures.

The CONNEX™ family of products is the first to be entirely developed and optimized for flow performance, using all natural rock targets. Testing in GEODynamics’ flow laboratory under representative stress and pressure conditions shows perforations shot with CONNEX™ charges deliver more than 30% greater flow than those shot with leading conventional charges.

…debris-free tunnels with no crushed zone…
…more than 30% greater flow…

So How Does it Work?

When a CONNEX™ Perforating charge is fired, it initially behaves exactly like a conventional shaped charge. The main explosive load detonates, evolving a huge volume of gas and generating tremendous pressure. As the detonation wave advances through the main body of the charge it collapses the conical metal liner toward its axis, producing a high velocity jet of particles moving at over 20,000 ft/sec. Along the axis of the cone, particle collision pressures as high as 15 million psi are generated. The particle jet pushes aside and plastically deforms the gun body, wellbore casing, cement, and formation. Rock grains are pulverized and displaced radially, forming the perforation tunnel. Finely crushed rock together with mud, cement, and charge debris is forced into the pore throats of the surrounding rock, leading to a ‘crushed’ or ‘altered’ zone of reduced permeability.

Whereas perforation with conventional charges depends on flow from the undamaged matrix to the wellbore to remove the crushed zone and any debris that may be obstructing the tunnel, CONNEX™ Perforating introduces a secondary Reactive™ effect that makes flow unnecessary. A carefully controlled bimetallic combination within the powdered metal liner reacts under the tremendous pressures of detonation and liner collapse. This Hume-Rothery reaction is highly exothermic and takes place in the perforation tunnel microseconds after it has formed. The energy released supercharges the near-tunnel region, creating a surge of flow into the wellbore. This flow removes material from the entire tunnel length, including the impermeable but relatively weak crushed zone. Since every tunnel is subjected to this secondary reaction they are all cleaned out, irrespective of differences in rock quality or local pressure conditions.

CONNEX™ Perforating In Action

The photographs below provide a side-by-side comparison of perforation tunnels created with conventional and CONNEX™ products. Figures 7 and 8 show tests shot under moderate confining stress. Figures 9 and 10 show tests shot under higher confining stress. All tests were carried out with 25g HMX deeppenetrating shaped charges and Berea sandstone targets. In both cases, the CONNEX™ tunnel delivered a productivity ratio more than 30% greater than the conventional equivalent.

Six Things to Remember about CONNEX™ Perforating

  • Clean tunnels without having to apply significant drawdown
  • Clean tunnels even in poor or heterogeneous formations
  • Reactive™ effect in every tunnel means all tunnels clean up
  • >30% increase in productivity compared to conventional charges
  • Drops into conventional equipment, wireline or TCP
  • The first in a new class of perforators optimized for flow

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